Dating of exodus
Naturally, this scenario is untenable as Jephthah lived long before Solomon (or Saul, for that matter) was born. Even allowing for a possible overlap of the reigns of the judges, the activities and times specified in the book of Judges don’t compress well into a 180-year time-span. The Merneptah Stele is dated to approximately 1210BC and states that the nation of Israel was destroyed by Pharaoh Merneptah.
With a late-date Exodus, Joshua would have had less than 20 years to establish the nation of Israel in time for Merneptah to destroy it.
b) The ~120 years for Saul, David and Solomon’s combined reigns; and c) the 40 years of wilderness wanderings immediately after the Exodus.
The only variable is the time-span of Joshua and the Judges.
This lets them use the 1270 BC date.) Thutmose III’s 60+ year reign makes him an ideal candidate as the pharaoh of the oppression, and his son Amenhotep II as the pharaoh of the Exodus. In , Jephthah states that the Israelites had possession of the land for some 300 years.
It was motivated by certain archaeological data in Israel, which looked more suitable to the Conquest, down around 1200 B. Acts -20 reads: For some forty years he bore with their conduct in the desert.
As a result, the "early date" conflicts with these other biblical chronological data. It is consistent with no biblical chronological data.
While the Bible, plainly read, argues for an early-date Exodus c 1446BC, some scholars claim that there is a lack of archaeological evidence to support this, and prefer to put the Exodus at a later date of c 1270BC.
Regardless of the date of the Exodus, several events are not in dispute: a) The date of construction of Solomon’s temple in 966BC.
The late date (1270BC) was chosen due to the length of Ramses’ reign (one of two pharaohs that ruled for over 40 years – the time Moses was in wilderness exile) and evidence of battles in Palestine dating to ~1230BC (Joshua’s conquest after the wilderness wandering). states the Exodus took place 480 years before the construction of Solomon’s temple began.
However, the late-date Exodus allows only 180 years for Joshua and the Judges, while the early-date Exodus, allows 356 years. (Some scholars spiritualize this to mean 12 tribes x 40 years of trials.