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It is also among the few sites to contain a stratified sequence of Proto-Aurignacian and Classic Aurignacian levels. It should be noted, though, that the assemblage from Cjn1 is smaller than Cjn2 and Cbci-Cbf (N = 1100) and that this ‘thin and sporadic layer, located in the upper part of the unit, is only occasionally seen as a thin line of hearths or, in other instances, as a horizon of minute traces of soot’ (Laplace 1966b - p. Furthermore, it is frequently mentioned in the excavation notebooks (kept in the MNP archives) that it is very difficult or impossible to see the contact surface between Cbf and Cjn1 visually in the stratigraphy.

Thus, it can help us to appreciate the chronological relationship between the Proto-Aurignacian and other Early Upper Palaeolithic or late Mousterian industries and contribute to evaluating the taxonomic link between them. Also, Cjn1 and Cjn2 are found in the same sedimentary unit (see below and Table 1) and are in contact with each other.

Gatzarria Cave is an important site for many reasons regarding the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. As such, Iholdy flysch flint, which accounts for 60 % of the raw material in Cjn2, is only marginally represented in Cbf.

Among them, it is one of the few sites to contain a Vasconian Mousterian industry, a facies often thought to represent a late stage in the Mousterian (Deschamps 2008) and thereby potentially associated with the late Neanderthals. This rarity is also the case in Cjn1, where Iholdy flint represents only 8.5 % of the assemblage.

The principal objective of this article is to present the first ever radiocarbon dates done on the Vasconian Mousterian, Proto-Aurignacian and Classic Aurignacian layers of this site. Consequently, at this stage of our own analysis, we cannot exclude the hypothesis that the Cjn1 assemblage could be, at least in part, a mix of Proto-Aurignacian assemblage Cjn2 and Classic Aurignacian assemblage Cbf.

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The Vasconian Mousterian, which has been argued as a late Mousterian facies by radiometric data, is older at this site than has been argued at other sites: Vasconian Mousterian: 50 300 14C BP. Figure 1 - Carte du sud de la France et du nord de l’Espagne indiquant la localisation de Gatzarria (n° 10) dans le contexte régional de sites aurignaciens et moustériens à hachereaux. As is typical for this artifact type, the bladelets are retouched on one edge of the ventral surface (inverse retouch), with some of them also being dorsally retouched on the opposite edge (alternate retouch). It is marginal (often very marginal) and semi-abrupt, thus barely transforming the blank.

These represent the first dates ever obtained on this key site. In this assemblage, the inverse retouch was nearly exclusively done on the right edge (34 of 37 cases), as is usually the case for this artifact type (Demars et Laurent 1989 - p. Blanks were made using local raw materials or generally those from the neighbouring environment ; flysch dominates, with 93.8 % of the pieces of identified raw material type belonging to this group (we could not identify the raw material of 20% percent of the assemblage).

The site of Gatzarria (Pyrenean France) was excavated in the 1960s and 1970s by Georges Laplace. It is the richer of two superposed Proto-Aurignacian layers, containing 1737 flint pieces in the sampled set (see below for what is meant by ‘sampled set’).

The importance of the site lies in the fact that it contains a stratified sequence of Aurignacian industries (Proto-Aurignacian — Classic Aurignacian — Late Aurignacian), a Châtelperronian layer, as well as a long sequence of Mousterian layers (including what has been termed the Vasconian Mousterian). This industry is geared towards the exclusive production of small blades, as well as elongated, slender, rectilinear-profile bladelets produced as part of the same operational sequence.

After detailed evaluation of the stratigraphy of the site based on lithic analyses, projections, as well as refits of the Laplace excavation collection, we determined the most appropriate squares from which to sample and bones to select. Among the retouched blades and bladelets, Dufour bladelets (sub-type Dufour) are the most prevalent (37 out of 74 retouched blades/bladelets) (fig. These are also the most standardized elements in the assemblage in terms of size and morphology, with thickness ranging from 1-2.5 mm and width from 3.5-9 mm.The results are stratigraphically coherent, with an overlap in chronometric dates between the two early stratified Aurignacian industries : Classic Aurignacian 34 250 ± 550 and 34 400 ± 550 14C BP; Proto-Aurignacian : 36 300 ± 700 and 33 800 ± 550 14C BP. Black squares indicate Proto-Aurignacian or Classic Aurignacian sites, while white squares denote Vasconian sites ; some sites contain both, as shown by split black-white squares. Most of them are broken, with the longest being 32.5 mm.



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